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Water Story


Environment Management - WATER

Rain Water Harvest & Bore Recharge

1. Rain Water Harvest & Bore Water Recharge

Rain Water Harvest

Rain water Harvest img

1. Rain water harvesting is collection and storage of rain water that runs off from roof tops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. This water run off can be either stored or recharged into the ground water.

2. It reduces soil erosion and flood hazards by collecting rainwater and reducing the flow of stormwater to prevent urban flooding. Most buildings that utilize rainwater harvesting systems have a built-in catchment area on top of the roof, which has a capacity of collecting large volumes of water in case of rainstorms.

3. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is a simple method by which rainfall is collected for future usage. The collected rainwater may be stored, utilised in different ways or directly used for recharge purposes.

Bore Water Recharge

Bore well recharging technically focuses on the use of harvested surface water (obtained via rainfall or nearby water bodies) where runoff water begins to pass through a natural filter made up of large and small stones.

Aquifers are replenished with water from the surface through a process called "recharge." This occurs as a part of the hydrologic cycle when water from rainfall percolates into underlying aquifers.

In the direct recharge method, an open well of manageable size, say up to 10 feet deep and diameter, is dug around the casing pipe. The pipe itself is perforated with a drill machine and the holes are covered by a net, to let water in but not the dirt

Recharge occurs when water seeps into the ground to replenish underground aquifers. Although some recharge happens incidentally—water flowing into the ground from rivers, unlined canals, or excess irrigation—intentional recharge can restore groundwater levels and store water for later use.

The centre recharge well should be at least 3 times the distance of the depth of basement. Make sure that the soil is not too loose while digging the recharge well. Also sufficient safety measures like shoring, safety helmets are taken care . you should cover the recharge well or bore well properly while construction.

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Bore water recharge.jpg

2. Sewage Water Treatment (STP)



Sewage Treatment Plant is a facility that receives the waste from domestic, commercial and industrial sources and filters it to remove the harmful substances that deteriorate water quality and affect public health and safety when discharged into rivers, canals, and other water bodies.


Wastewater is treated in 3 phases: primary (solid removal), secondary (bacterial decomposition), and tertiary (extra filtration)

8 stages of process

  1. Stage One — Bar Screening

  2. Stage Two — Screening

  3. Stage Three — Primary Clarifier

  4. Stage Four — Aeration

  5. Stage Five — Secondary Clarifier

  6. Stage Six — Chlorination (Disinfection)

  7. Stage Seven — Water Analysis & Testing

  8. Stage Eight — Effluent Disposal

Sewage treatment (or domestic wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater treatment) is a type of wastewater treatment which aims to remove contaminants from sewage to produce an effluent that is suitable for discharge to the surrounding environment or an intended reuse application, thereby preventing water pollution from raw sewage discharges. Sewage contains wastewater from households and businesses and possibly pre-treated industrial wastewater. There are a high number of sewage treatment processes to choose from. These can range from decentralized systems (including on-site treatment systems) to large centralized systems involving a network of pipes and pump stations (called sewerage) which convey the sewage to a treatment plant. For cities that have a combined sewer, the sewers will also carry urban runoff (storm water) to the sewage treatment plant. Sewage treatment often involves two main stages, called primary and secondary treatment, while advanced treatment also incorporates a tertiary treatment stage with polishing processes and nutrient removal. Secondary treatment can reduce organic matter (measured as biological oxygen demand) from sewage, using aerobic or anaerobic biological processes.

A large number of sewage treatment technologies have been developed, mostly using biological treatment processes. Engineers and decision makers need to take into account technical and economic criteria, as well as quantitative and qualitative aspects of each alternative when choosing a suitable technology. Often, the main criteria for selection are: desired effluent quality, expected construction and operating costs, availability of land, energy requirements and sustainability aspects. In developing countries and in rural areas with low population densities, sewage is often treated by various on-site sanitation systems and not conveyed in sewers. These systems include septic tanks connected to drain fields, on-site sewage systems (OSS), vermin filter systems and many more. On the other hand, advanced and relatively expensive sewage treatment plants in cities that can afford them may include tertiary treatment with disinfection and possibly even a fourth treatment stage to remove micro pollutants.

At the global level, an estimated 52% of sewage is treated. However, sewage treatment rates are highly unequal for different countries around the world. For example, while high-income countries treat approximately 74% of their sewage, developing countries treat an average of just 4.2%.

The treatment of sewage is part of the field of sanitation. Sanitation also includes the management of human waste and solid waste as well as storm water (drainage) management. The term "sewage treatment plant" is often used interchangeably with the term "wastewater treatment plant


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STP (sewage water treatment)
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